Friday, April 1, 2011

Japan failed to overcome the Nuclear leakage

 Failed, Japan's efforts Nuclear ReactorJapan will shut down all nuclear reactors over 40 years. Expensive, and not the effort easy.Thursday, March 31, 2011, 21:26 GMT Dramatic rescue humanity from the dangers of nuclear radiation in the prefecture of Fukushima, Japan, will likely end up as companies and governments plan to disable the reactor at the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima Daiichi.
Reporting from the pages of The Guardian, Thursday, March 31, 2011, nuclear power plant operator, Tokyo Electric Power Co.. (Tepco) and the Japanese government seemed overwhelmed dealing with the damage at four nuclear reactors at the nuclear power plant.
Efforts to cool down by the "Nuclear Samurai" was so successful, in fact precisely the situation worse. This makes the Prime Minister of Japan, Naoto Kan, on Tuesday, March 29, 2011, declared his country in a state of "maximum alert".
Officers in the field are now detected a leak of plutonium contained in the soil. Leak allegedly came from one of the worst damaged reactor, the reactor unit two.
The content of high levels of plutonium were also detected in a pool of water at the installation. Reportedly, two workers taken to hospital last week after burning his feet submerged in stagnant water due to plutonium.
Leakage is also making the situation worse in the Fukushima nuclear power plant. Fluctuations in radiation levels in air are increasingly frequent, with the highest possible level through normal limits.
Radioactive substances and even creeping up to the great distances from the NPP. Reporting from CNN, Wednesday, March 30, 2011, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) of the United Nations (UN) found high levels of radiation in the city Iitate, a distance of 40 km from the NPP.
Green Peace Organization said last Sunday in the town of radiation 50 times above the normal limit. Although still below the level that can cause illness due to radiation, exposure to it can provide long-term impact for the citizens, among them cancer.
Both organizations recommend that government expand the scope to prevent the evacuation of 7000 residents of this city are exposed. Previously, the government only to evacuate 170,000 residents in the area of ​​20 km radius of nuclear plants, more than that are called upon to remain in the house.
In response to this proposal, the Japanese government did not flinch. They feel the level of radiation at that level should trigger a wave of evacuations yet again.
Finally, Tepco and the Japanese government plans rolling disabling the nuclear reactor at nuclear power plants. Deactivation is not going to use more nuclear power plants to meet electricity needs, would not be repaired again reactor.
Director Tepco, Tsunehira Katsumata, said four nuclear reactors at the nuclear plant problem will be disabled because they do not also attempt to fruition.
Katsumata said there was no other option but to shut down reactor units one to four in the nuclear power plant. Deactivation will be done at four reactor units, but the fifth and sixth reactor units will still operate.
Both reactors are located separately from the other four reactor units were reportedly not damaged, because it does not operate during the earthquake and tsunami occurred March 11 last.
However, the intention to maintain the two reactors was opposed by the government. Yukio Edano government spokesman, said all nuclear power reactors in 40-year-old will be disabled. "This decision is very clear, see the situation develops now," said Edano.
Not sure when this will be done by disabling the government or by Tepco.
It took 30 years, trillions of yen
Apparently the plan is not as easy as turning off the reactor's palm. According to IEEE Spectrum page, it takes more than 30 years and cost up to trillions of yen, until the reactor can be disabled entirely, and the situation returned to normal.
Before the disabled, the deputy director general of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of Japan (NISA), Hidehiko Nishiyama, said first reactor to be cooled, and is in its normal temperature.
Various ways done by the "Nuclear Samurai" to cool the reactor after cooling and electrical generator damaged by shocks of the earthquake and tsunami last March 11.
Among them are injecting sea water and borax acid into the reactor casing, sea water poured onto the reactor using military helicopters and spray with water cannon. When sea water is felt even cause salt deposits, millions of liters of fresh water delivered to the NPP government of the United States. These efforts are considered to be effective, but only help cool a little.
Currently required is a return flow of electric current in the generator for cooling the reactor automatically. It was not easy. To cool the reactor is expected to take up to several months.
"The Japanese government is currently looking for some way of cooling the reactor. This will take some time until the temperature dropped and stabilized," said Japanese government spokesman, Yukio Edano.
Nuclear experts from the Institute of Energy Economics Japan, Tomoko Murakami, said that after a cold, then the damaged reactor can only be destroyed. However, before that, all the particles and radioactive materials must first be cleaned and removed from the site.
Murakami said the total deactivation process of cooling and hot water to the reactor type as in Fukushima will take more than 30 years.It is based on similar experiences in Japan during the reactor shut down nuclear power plant in the town of Tokai, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan Atomic Power Co. property. (Japco). The company started in 1998 after reactor decommissioning effort to function for 32 years.
Reportedly, the deactivation project continues to this day. Tokai reactor decommissioning is estimated to be completed in March 2021, or after 23 years of craftsmanship. To stabilize and move the nuclear fuel from the reactor core only take up to three years.
Pocket issued by Japco also not the least, required 88.5 billion yen, or about Rp9, 2 trillion to complete the mission Tokai reactor decommissioning.
For the four reactors in Fukushima, the cost and time estimated to be much more.
Murakami said the Fukushima nuclear power plant decommissioning effort will take about 30 years old and costly hinga 1 trillion yen, or about 1,000 trillion. Unusually large amount, even for a country as advanced Japanese.
"Moving the damaged fuel from the reactor takes more than two years, the delay will only make the cost more swollen," said Murakami, who is also an expert who worked in the Tokai reactor decommissioning effort.
Cleaning and deactivation Fukushima considered the most expensive among similar efforts on the nuclear crisis that occurred at Three Mile, the United States and at Chernobyl, Ukraine.
In comparison, at Three Mile Island, an effort begun in 1979 deactivation take up to 12 years, at a cost of U.S. $ 973 million (Rp8, 4 trillion). Deactivation efforts in this island exert up to 1,000 people.
Meanwhile, cleanup efforts radiation on nuclear crisis worst in human history in Chernobyl, Ukraine, in 1986 still continues until now. Ukraine's government reportedly no longer able to finance the effort. Latest effort is the installation of the sarcophagus to cover the Chernobyl reactor, which is planned to be carried out in 2014.
This sarcophagus installation costs amounted to U.S. $ 2.2 billion (Rp19 trillion). Fortunately, the European Bank in London bear 65 percent of the cost.
Important for Japan's nuclear
Although the cause of the disaster, the government and people of Japan need nuclear power to meet their needs. Nuclear energy has become a strategic priority since 1973. For them, nuclear is a wise choice, because this country does not have much sakura oil and gas resources. The crisis this time is the price to be paid to meet the electricity needs of the people of Japan.
Data from the Federation of Electric Power Companies (FEPC) of Japan, the country operates 55 nuclear reactors with 49,467 megawatts of electricity generated, almost 50 gigawatts. This energy contributes 34.5 percent of Japan's electricity needs.
To serve the needs, Japan's share some electrical distribution points. Each region held by the operator of 10 company, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Okinawa Electric Power Company, Kyushu Electric Power Company, Chubu Electric Power Company, Tohoku Electric Power Company, Shikoku Electric Power Company, Kansai Electric Power Company, Hokuriku Electric Power Company , Hokkaido Electric Power Company, and Chugoku Electric Power Company.
Fukushima nuclear power plant reactor is one of the world's largest nuclear power plant. These reactors contribute 4.7 gigawatts to meet the electricity needs of Japan.

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